Societas Dei Vol. 03, No. 2, Oktober 2016
Dirk Griffioen, Utrecht Mission, Utrecht
THE RELEVANCE OF GOD'S COVENANT FOR A REFORMED THEOLOGY OF RELIGION
ABSTRACT: In God's Revelation, the structure of the covenant consists of God's promises and Israel’s answer to them. In the covenant God has revealed Himself personally to both individuals and his chosen people. In the theology of religion developed by Hendrik Kraemer, there are two types of religion: The (prophetic) religion based on God’s revelation and the other (naturalist) religions are based on efforts to grasp the identity of his real self with divine reality, this is called as ‘trans-empirical self realization’. What is the essence of religion based on God's self revelation? God's revelation is the only source of all knowledge about true spirituality and the salvation in Christ. The Bible as the witness of God's revelation to prophets and apostles is the criterion of all religious truth. The Bible relates the history of redemption, gives a foundation to personal faith, and is the only guidebook to the life and work of the Christian community. From this starting point I try to analyze the Biblical concept of religious truth as the standard for determining religions, and to give a real answer to God’s self revelation. KEYWORDS: covenant, revelation, faith, religion.
Togardo Siburian, Sekolah Tinggi Teologi Bandung
MENUJU KESETARAAN DALAM BERAGAMA YANG BERBUDAYA: REFLEKSI SEMINARIAN INJILI
ABSTRACT: This article discusses a variety of modern man who is more civilized from the Evangelical perspective. Nowadays, the relations between different religious people is still filled with religious violence and conflicts. This happens because of extreme radicalism views wich perhaps are caused by the leftovers of our religious studies and practices in the past. There was a misunderstanding in processing religion wich could destroy the future of human civilization due to the absence of a culture of togetherness. The Evangelical Christianity may participate to think few principles of religious life wich are better for present humanity. The recommended principles are: 1) the importance of natural religious comparison in the normal society, 2) returning to the principle of missional church, 3) prioritizing the ethical emphasis more than the apologetical, 4) the balance between faith commitment and religious tolerance, 5) prophetic leadership rather than priesthood only, 6) faith particularism than religious exclusivism in inter-religious approach, 7) personal spirituality rather than individual religiosity. Thereby it is hoped that religious people may live together easier within the context of national unity and world peace. KEYWORDS: religious, conflict, collective civilization, normal comparison, ethical, prophetic, missional, particular.
Syaiful Arif, Peneliti Perhimpunan Pendidikan Demokrasi (P2D)
ISLAM, RADIKALISME DAN DERADIKALISASI BERBASIS PANCASILA
ABSTRACT: Religious radicalism (Islam) developed the theological thought to counter-Pancasila and the Republic of Indonesia (NKRI), it can be fought and softened with Pancasila itself. This is due to the fact that the cause of such radicalism is a misunderstanding to the Pancasila and its political system. Pancasila is regarded as a secular political ideology, whereas it actually cared pattern for the relationship between religion and state that upholds the values of divinity on the one side, and the public virtue on the other side. Deradizalisation of religion based on Pancasila can be applied with two strategies. First, proving the existence of religious dimension of Pancasila and Republic of Indonesia to undermine the secular claims from the radical groups. Second, learning the nature of politics which contained in Pancasila. These nature of politics are more in line with the political ideals of Islam, rather than the ideology of Islamism which tends to the violent. KEYWORDS: Islam, radicalism, deradicalization, Pancasila.
Edy Syahputra Sihombing, Mahasiswa Magister Unika Parahyangan, Bandung, Indonesia
MENGHIDUPI KESEJATIAN AGAMA: TAWARAN YANG MENGGUGAT EKSISTENSI AGAMA
SEBAGAI USAHA PARTISIPATIF DALAM PEMBANGUNAN INDONESIA
ABSTRACK: Since human culture exist, religion is also exist in it’s variety. Religion has became the mode existence of human being. Basically the religion is the place to which gives space for humans to communicated, meet with the ultimate reality. In the development of human culture, religion is experiencing by a growing change in form and contents. Earlier, religion is a relationship between human and the ultimate reality, that overtime turned into an institutions that has systematically conceptualised doctrine in the form of dogmatic. The purpose of religion also shifted from efforts to more close eith the ultimate reality became human attempt to increase followers. Religion seem more concerned with quantity than quality. The shifts is likely to lead a conflict and violence to many people. This became a responsibility for Indonesian’s religions. This paper want to explain the truth of religion supposed and looking the positive influence of Indonesian’s religions in an influence of Indonesian’s religions in an attempt to build Indonesian become to nation that able to thrive religioan pluralism. KEYWORD: Religion, Paradigm, Ideology, Religious violence, Religious repentance, Indonesian development.
Lina Gunawan, Sekolah Tinggi Teologi Reformed Injili Internasional (STTRII) Jakarta, Indonesia
KESETARAAN DAN PERBEDAAN LAKI-LAKI DAN PEREMPUAN:
KRITIK TERHADAP GERAKAN FEMINISME
ABSTRACT: This article with a title: The Equality and Distinction Between Man and Woman: A Critique to the Feminist Movement", will firstly discuss about the feminist movement comprehensively and afterward itu will discuss about the feminist movement within Christianity, gender-equality issues, as well as the distinction between man and woman from the view of Christian feminism. After these, it will be discussed gender-equality issues and the distinction between man and woman from the perspective of Reformed theology. Then a critique to the feminist movement within Christianity will be discussed. The finding of this article is that the feminist movement within Christianity has indeed grown a better appreciation for the woman, especially in the equality between man and woman wich is a reality. The consequence is the authority of the Bible is accused by this Christian feminist movement. KEYWORDS: feminism, Christian feminism, equality, distinction, Reformed theology.
Societas Dei Vol. 03, No. 1, April 2016
Binsar A. Hutabarat & H. Hans Panjaitan, Reformed Center for Religion and Society (RCRS) Jakarta, Indonesia
TINGKAT TOLERANSI ANTARAGAMA DI MASYARAKAT INDONESIA
ABSTRACT: This article will measure the level of religious tolerance ini Indonesia. The measurement of this level of tolerance is based upon views of some students' organization in Jakarta. These samples are chosen because they are groups wich have most involvement in the issue of religious relationship. The samples wich are used to represent the population of students' organizations are five religious related organization, namely: Christian Student Movement of Indonesia (GMKI), Islam Students Community (HMI), Buddhist Students Community of Indonesia (HIKMAHBUDHI), Hindu Dharma Students Union of Indonesia (KMHDI), and Catholic Students Unity of the Republic of Indonesia (PMKRI). The views of these students' organizations are expected to be measurement tools for the level of religious tolerance in Indonesia society, wich are very important to preserve the integrity of Indonesia as a nation. Data collection in this research uses surveys in the form of Likert scale, as well as structured interview. Data analysis is done with triangulation method so that it is expected that data validity can be well preserved. KEYWORDS: tolerance, religion, violence.
Antonius Steven Un, Sekolah Tinggi Teologi Reformed Injili Internasional (STRII) Jakarta, Indonesia
CALVINISME DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN: SUATU TINJAUAN FILOSOFIS
TERHADAP PEMIKIRAN ABRAHAM KUYPER DAN IMPLIKASINYA PADA ETIKA ILMU PENGETAHUAN
ABSTRACT: This article is focused on systematic explanation of Abraham Kuyper’s thought on Calvinism and science. Some of significant contributions of Calvinism are the theological foundation of science and its liberation from church’s invasion. This article uses a philosophical approach in its methodology and not a theological one. Therefore, I frequently make critical dialogues with the philosophy of science in reading and analyzing Kuyper’s notion. Final ending of this research is an articulation of its implications to the ethics of science. On this point, I will consider the contribution of David Resnick. KEYWORDS: Calvinism, science, Abraham Kuyper, ethics.
Amos Winarto Oei, Sekolah Tinggi Teologi Aletheia, Lawang, Jawa Timur, Indonesia
PEMAHAMAN IDENTITAS MORAL DALAM MENINGKATKAN KEMAMPUAN PENGAMBILAN KEPUTUSAN ETIS
BAGI PARA PESERTA DIDIK PENDIDIKAN AGAMA KRISTEN
ABSTRACT: This article examines whether appealing to learners’ moral identity makes a significant contribution to their ethical decision making. Moral identity theory and experiment in moral psychology will be used as a source to be reckoned with in improving ethical decision making. This is to avoid excessive emphasis on emotions, environment and knowledge of the rules which did have an impact on one's ethical decision making. The approach used in this article is the quantitative approach. The result showed that the understanding of moral identity can act as an element to boost the ability of ethical decision making. This suggests that religious education which appeals to the learner’s moral identity can help them to make better ethical decision when complementing the emotional, the environment and the rule-based knowledge approaches. Thus, it is expected that the learners can have good moral character in the future. This moral identity appeal should be widely adopted as a common practice in religious education class. KEYWORDS: moral identity, ethical decision, understanding, cognitive development, religious education.
Jahdiel N. Perez, Mahasiswa Filsafat dan Teologi Kristen Harvard Divinity School
MOBILIZING MUSIC-MAKERS FOR THE FUTURE OF REFORMED THEOLOGY
ABSTRACT: If Reformed theology hopes to impact contemporary and future societies as much as possible it will have to harness the unique power of music to influence the world beyond the walls of the Church. In this essay, I want to draw attention to the ways in which Christianity, in general, and Reformed theology, in particular, are criticized through music and what we can do to respond. I will introduce an approach to Christian apologetics, which I call sonic-apologetics that enables our music-makers to defend the faith musically. In the first part of this paper, I will discuss five problems to which sonic-apologetics is an answer. This will anchor the second part of this essay, in which I construct sonic-apologetics from three notions: (1) methodological emphasis on effects, (2) genres of expression, and (3) the distinction between linear and angled apologetic responses. In the final part of this essay, I present two different study cases of sonic-apologetics. Nothing about what I will discuss regarding sonic-apologetics changing existing liturgical norms of Christian churches, especially Reformed ones. It does, however, call for those producing and performing music in these churches to direct their music-making interests and abilities toward the world outside the church walls. KEYWORDS: reformed theology, music, sonic-apologetics.
Yasintus T. Runesi, Depertemen Filsafat Fakultas Ilmu Budaya Universitas Indonesia
UNIVERSALISME PAULUS MENURUT ALAIN BADIOUN: URAIAN DAN TANGGAPAN
ABSTRACT: When people believe that social particularities raise plurality of views in the contemporary society, Badiou introduces the idea of the universality of the singular subject with the aim of overcoming the so-called global village without solidarity. This article is a description of Badiou’s thought, which is included in the line of thinkers which moves "small boat of thought" to the subject and the subjectivity of human. In the first section, I will outline Badiou’s view about the problem of homogenization, followed by his view of Christianity as an event, which will lead us to his view on the universal singularity that is rooted in the proclamation of St. Paul. At the end, I will propose a critical note on his views in comparison with some philosophers who also spoke about St. Paul. This paper will be closed with a conclusion on the significance of Badiou’s thought, in the context of contemporary society's pluralism, especially in Indonesia. KEYWORDS: Badiou, St. Paul, universality, singular subject, pluralism.
Imelda Ginting, Sekolah Tinggi Teologi Reformed Injili Internasional (STTRII) Jakarta, Indonesia
LEGALISASI PERNIKAHAN SEJENIS DALAM PERSPEKTIF HUKUM MORAL JOHN CALVIN
ABSTRACT: This article will firstly discuss in brief about the fact of the LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender), situational ethics as its foundation for justification, and the community which fights for the legalization of the same-sex marriage. In this section, I will explain on the foundation which is used for justification of same-sex marriage’s legalization. After that, I will give a review on John Calvin’s moral law to assess whether the foundation which is used for that justification is appropriate. The finding of this article is that same-sex marriage’s legalization does not have an appropriate foundation according to Calvin’s moral law. Therefore, this cannot be accepted by the church. KEYWORDS: same-sex marriage, moral law, John Calvin.
Societas Dei Vol. 02, No. 2, Oktober 2015
Benyamin F. Intan, Sekolah Tinggi Teologi Reformed Injili Internasional
MISI KRISTEN DI INDONESIA: KESAKSIAN KRISTEN PROTESTAN
ABSTRACT: In this article, the writer reveals the presence and struggles of Protestant churches in Indonesia doing God’s mission within world’s largest Muslim population country. Firstly, the writer explains the challenges and strives of Protestant churches since the time of Dutch colonialism, Japanese colonization, until Indonesian independence which includes the Old Order and the New Order. This article also highlights Indonesian churches’ struggle of independence to release themselves from the control of Dutch government, fully leaning to Christ, as well as the strategic role of Christianity in preventing nation’s disintegration to make Indonesia one. After that, the writer then performs critical reflection on the struggles of Protestant churches in Indonesia from the perspective of Reformed theology. The writer found that the presence of Christian mission in Indonesia is far from the force of arms and economic greed. However, churches in Indonesia cannot detach themselves from various challenges and suffering in God’s mission which includes Evangelical Mandate and Cultural Mandate. Therefore, while they are still entrusted by Christ, churches in Indonesia ought to perform their dutiful calling faithfully and joyfully. KEYWORDS: God’s mission, witness, evangelism, protestant church in Indonesia, ideology, religion-state relation, mission’s institution.
Christine Schirrmacher, Bonn University, Germany
THE SHARIA-BASED UNDERSTANDING OF RELIGIOUS FREEDOM AND WOMEN'S RIGHTS
IN CONFLICT WITH THE SECULAR
ABSTRACT: The areas of conflict relating to the freedom of religion and women’s rights do not affect the majority of Muslims who practice their religion in Germany and, in the process, they do not clash with the constitutional state. This is also not a matter having to do with those theologians who take their justification for comprehensive religious freedom and equal rights for women from the Koran and, respectively, other normative sources of Islam. Rather, it has to do with those influential scholars who interpret the norms and commands of Islam in such a way that conflicts arise with the laws of a secular constitutional state. These scholars defend the view that the laws of the Sharia are prior to the norms of the secular constitutional state and are obligatory for all Muslims.
At the present moment, the question of freedom of religion could be virtually understood as a topic which, in largely secularized Europe and for the religiously neutral state, possesses little relevance. To what extent do inner-Islamic standpoints interest the constitutional state on the question of religious freedom? For the constitutional state, it does not concern itself with the question of evaluating a religion and its doctrinal content. This also applies with respect to Islam. There, however, where actions are justified by religious convictions, or where they follow from them or are declared to be mandatory by influential religious opinion leaders, and where these actions infringe upon established law or limit the basic rights of individuals, the state and its representatives have to concern themselves with these convictions, independent of whether these convictions are of a religious, political, or of a religious and political nature. KEYWORDS: Germany, Islam, freedom of religion, women’s rights, the constitutional state, conflicts.
Binsar A. Hutabarat, Reformed Center for Religion and Society
PENDAPAT PIMPINAN-PIMPINAN GEREJA DI BEKASI TENTANG IZIN PENDIRIAN RUMAH IBADAH
DALAM PERATURAN BERSAMA MENTERI TAHUN 2006
ABSTRACT: The article, entitled "Opinion The church Leaders in Bekasi on the Permit Construction of Houses of Worship in the Joint Regulation of the Minister of the Year 2006, will be explained about the implementation of policies permit the establishment of houses of worship in Joint Regulation of the Minister (PBM) in 2006 in Bekasi, as well as the implications for church in that place, through the opinion of the church leaders in Bekasi. First, authors will describe the Guarantee Rights of Religion, Belief, Worship and Establish Home Worship based on Pancasila and the Indonesian Constitution, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, The Covenant, and documents declarations of the United Nations (UN), and also explained about permit the establishment of houses of worship of Letters Joint Decree (SKB) until the PBM. After that, will be presented regarding the results of the opinion of the church leaders in Bekasi on the implementation of the policy permits a house of worship in Bekasi. Opinion leaders in Bekasi Church will be grouped in four categories, namely: A) The church which has a license, and not problematic. B) The church is having problems obtaining a license, a problem with the public, but finish. C) The church that does not have a license but has no problem with the community. D) The church that does not have permissions and have problem with the community, and did not finish. The findings obtained are church leaders in the four categories above found PBM on authorizing the establishment of houses of worship contrary to Pancasila and the Indonesian Constitution and the values of human rights are universal, and implementation of government policies that adversely affect the lives of religious believers in Bekasi, both in the internal relations of religion, as well as in interreligious relations. KEYWORDS: permit the establishment of houses of worship, Joint Ministerial Decree, Pancasila, the Indonesian constitution, human rights.
Adrian Jonatan, Gereja Reformed Injili Indonesia
KONTRIBUSI PEMIKIRAN EGBERT SCHUURMAN MENGENAI PERMASALAHAN
DAN SOLUSI TEKNOLOGI MODERN
ABSTRACT: In the modern technological world, human is constantly relating with technology, be it as a user or as a part of technological production mechanism. But what is technology, what kind of value that technology brings, and how should one response to technology? Does technology brings good, bad or neutral? These are the questions that we need to answer as we live in a technological world. In the philosophy of technology, there is one thinker, who represents the school of Reformational Philosophy, named Egbert Schuurman. In the midst of two kinds of reaction towards technology (optimistic and pessimistic) Schuurman proposes a Liberating Perspective as the third option. This perspective is aware of the deep influence of human sinfulness in technological development. However, it also considers the beauty of creational design and Christ’s redeeming power for technological development. In this article, the writer would like to observe Schuurman’s thoughts regarding this Liberating Perspective as a considerable solution to the problems of modern technological life. KEYWORDS: technology, modern, society, reformational philosophy, liberating perspectives, responsible ethics.
Yakub Kartawidjaja, Sekolah Tinggi Teologi Reformed Injili Internasional
THE THEOLOGY OF DEATH IN CANTATA BWV 106
BY J. S. BACH: A CRITICAL STUDY
ABSTRACT: The text of Cantata BWV 106 shows two forms of organization: symmetry and chronology. The former is shown by similar sets of correspondences in the musical texture, which display the antithesis: death under the Law versus death under the Gospel. The latter is visible in the four solos and central fugue/solo/chorale complex between the prologue and doxology. The chronology passes through the stages of the history of Israel to the coming of Christ, his death on the cross, and the era of the Christian church. The sequence can be read as an internal progression from fear of death and acceptance of its inevitability to faith in Christ and in the promise of the Gospel, and finally, to the willingness of the believer to die in Christ and his church. KEYWORDS: Luther, death, law, gospel, faith, sleep.
Societas Dei Vol. 02, No. 1, April 2015
Dr. Peter A. Lillback, Westminster Theological Seminary, USA
FROM AMERICA TO THE WORLD: PROTESTANT CHRISTIANITY’S CREATION OF RELIGIOUS LIBERTY
ABSTRACT: Half the population of the world to this day still has not experienced religious freedom. Religious persecution often still occurs at many places in the world. Research studies show that there is a direct correlation between religious freedom and economic prosperity. "Prosperity is the result of freedom, therefore the best way to improve the economic prosperity of a nation is to ensure freedom for its citizens." This article will first elaborate models of the relationship between church and state, and then explain the basic principle of the Bible regarding religious freedom. It further explains why incarceration of religious freedom or of conscience by the state is wrong, despite the reasons of protecting its citizens from false religion or from a cult. This paper will also explore religious persecution from the time of early church until the birth of Protestantism, and then speaks about the struggle and the protection of religious freedom. Furthermore this article goes into what underlies the constitutional protection of religious freedom in America, and then browse through the struggle and the protection of religious freedom as a struggle of the world. KEY WORDS: religious freedom, religious conflict, heresy, early church, Protestantism, religious freedom in the United States of America.
M. Dawam Rahardjo, Rektor Universitas Proklamasi, Yogyakarta
AGAMA DI RUANG PUBLIK POLITIK
ABSTRACT: The question of the role of religion in the public sphere of politics is bacause of its history, the three monotheist religions, wich is also called the Abrahamic religions. Judaism, Christianity and Islam, and even Hinduism and Buddishm, in maintaining their existences developments, always get into and ever form their own power in a country. Indonesia is a secular nation state, wich is not based on any particular religion as a political ideology, and yet its people are multi-religious. Even though the country is not based on religion, but religion has become a source of inspiration in its constitution, namely UUD (Undang Undang Dasar) 1945. On the one hand, people and the state are in unity for mutual support or mutual need. The state cannot be formed without people as its base. On the other hand, people need the state to protect the society.
Constitution is needed to control the state and its leader. On the one hand this constitution curb the power of its leader; and on the other hand it guarantees the fulfillment and the protection of civil rights that stem from human rights. The triangle of these institutions is reality in the current modern world, especially in Indonesia, where religion has an important role, even though in Europe the stand and the role of religion is in the declining stage due to secularization and secularism principle. Yet the relationship of these three institutions in the current modern context cause of complex issues related to the boundaries of these three institutions. What are the principles that can continuously connects these three so that justice as the main principle can be uphold between the triangle of society, state and religion? KEYWORDS: religion, public sphere, nation, civil rights, human rights.
Binsar A. Hutabarat, Reformed Center for Religion and Society
PERDA MANOKWARI KOTA INJIL:
MAKNA DAN KONSEKUENSI BAGI GEREJA-GEREJA DI INDONESIA
ABSTRACT: This article entitled "Provincial Regulation of Gospel City Manokwari: Significance and Consequences for the Churches in Indonesia" will first explore the presence of Provincial Regulation (Perda or peraturan daerah) of Gospel City Manokwari. The article is based on data collected by the author in a field research in areas related to the initiation of these regulations, and particularly in Manokwari. The author will then analyze this regulation from the standpoint of Christian theology, and further explain the implications of these regulations for the churches in Indonesia. The findings from this study is that Provincial Regulation of Gospel City Manokwari, which is initiated in Manokwari, Papua, is not part of Indonesian Christians strategy in general, and even become a detriment of the testimony of churches in Indonesia. KEY WORDS: Provincial Regulation (Perda or Peraturan Daerah) on religion, Perda on Gospel, the Gospel City Manokwari, state and religion, Christian theology.
Victor Silaen, Universitas Pelita Harapan (UPH) Tangerang, Indonesia
KRITIK ATAS KRISTEN DAN KENAIFAN POLITIK: SIKAP POLITIK PGPI DALAM PILPRES 2014
ABSTRACT: Politics is an aspect and a system that is very important in the lives of citizens. All citizens including Christians cannot shy away from politics, because of politics produce various public policies. Thus Christians are supposed to take part in political life, not only in the electoral arena, but also in other areas. In the event the election, churches should not be naïve. Churches must wisely give political enlightenment to their congregations, instead of the other way, lead the congregation to elect candidates of certain leaders. Thus the "political letter" issued by PGPI during the 2014 Presidential Election should be criticized as naïve, since the content dictated the churches under PGPI. In addition, issues brought up in the letter were entirely unfounded. It is no surprise that PGPI Chairman, Rev. Dr. Jacob Nahuway, MA, received much criticism and scorn. KEYWORDS: politics, political participation, power, nation, country, religion.
Togardo Siburian, Dosen STT Bandung
PRINSIP ETIKA GLOBAL UNTUK KOTA MODERN MULTIKULTURAL
ABSTRACT: This article aims to look at the principles of the idea of global ethics at the implementation of the advanced city in the present day or modern city. The concept of global ethics logically can be considered in a certain local as the common foundations of ethical living in this universal city. Using literature method, the author tries to positively see from the idea of a global ethic associated with globalism, pluralism, secularism, postmodernism, ecumenism and humanitarianism that form the concept of global ethics, which are selectively used to add the principle of good livelihood for the civilization of the world today. The author subsequently tries to see a multidimensional pluralistic city today with a conflict on religious factors, which require a more fundamental principle of unity and universal living. Therefore global ethics is not a substitute for existing religious ethics, but additional ethics for people of different religion without discrimination. So the principle can be implemented at a local anywhere, including major cities in Indonesia. KEYWORDS: city, modern, crisis, ethics, global, consensus, religions, for all.
PENANAMAN TOLERANSI BERAGAMA PADA ANAK MELALUI PENDIDIKAN
Nurhattati Fuad, Dosen Pascasarjana Universitas Negeri Jakarta
ABSTRACT: As the plural nation, the peace culture is something necessary to develop and to build for the sake of building local, national, regional, and global security. For this purpose, whatever religious tolerance programs are important, urgent, strategic, and determinative, particularly in the building of the peace culture needed to ccelerate the national developmental programmes. Consequently, from the socio-political perspective, surely the development program is systemicly determined by factors of how far the religious tolerance or the peace culture is successfully carried out. This article endevours to analytically describe of how far the urgency of religious tolerance on behalf of strengtening the peace culture in our country. In his analysis, it is virtually highlighted that the religious tolerance plays very important roles that might be regarded as precondition for the successful development and NKRI (Unified state of Republic of Indonesia) empowerment. For gaining its effectivity, cultivating religious tolerance culture become pivotel to be intensively implemented in our country. KEYWORDS: Religious tolerance, peace culture, security, development, informal (family) education.
Yohanes Krismantyo Susanta, Mahasiswa Pascasarjana Sekolah Tinggi Teologi Jakarta
HOSPITALITAS SEBAGAI UPAYA MENCEGAH KEKERASAN DAN MEMELIHARA KERUKUNAN
DALAM RELASI ISLAM - KRISTEN DI INDONESIA
ABSTRACT: This paper shows that religious violence is a reality that characterizes the history of mankind. The inter-religious violence became a regular phenomenon that is often encountered in Indonesian society. Therefore, this paper will examine the causes of inter-religious violence in Indonesia, especially the relationship between Muslims and Christians. This paper will also show the task of the church in preventing inter-religious violence by promoting and applying hospitality. It does not mean that the church is the most responsible for the violence, but the church is a part and become a witness of the history of violence that has occurred. KEYWORDS: hospitality, Christians-Muslims relationship, violence, religious harmony.
Societas Dei Vol. 01, No.1, Oktober 2014
Volume 1, No. 1, Oktober 2014
Stephen Tong, Gereja Reformed Injili Internasional
HUBUNGAN AGAMA DAN POLITIK: SUATU REFLEKSI TEOLOGIS-KULTURAL
ABSTRACT: A belief on absoluteness should not cause disharmony among people with different beliefs: instead it should continue task of peace. Calvinism anthropology that believes: instead it should continue task of peace. Calvinism anthropology that believes in the existence of truth, justuce and holiness in humanity encourages the development of democracy. Common grace for all mankind proples heart attitude to accept diversity. Mankind, wich is created as the image of God, reflects spiritual character to worship God. KEYWORDS: Calvinism, religion, democracy, common grace, nationalism.
Benyamin F. Intan, Sekolah Tinggi Reformed Injili Internasional
KEKRISTENAN DAN VIOLENCE: JUST WAR DAN TRADISI KRISTEN
ABSTRACT: After man has sinned, violence cannot be separated from human life. As Christianity comes into contact with violence, it generates a theory of just-war in responding against injustice. The application of just-war theory are not only limited to Christian circle, but has reached wider groups. Just-war has become a guidance for non-Christian philosephers and politicians to fight oppressors and to uphold justice. This paper describes the idea of just-war in Christian tradition, firstly by exploring the legitimacy of war in the light of the Word of God, and socondly by comparing it to the holy war in the context of the Old Testament. To better understand the views of the church leaders about just-war this paper will also discuss the criticisms against the theory. The author believes that the presence of just-war theory is crucial in the midst of this sinful world. KEYWORDS: violence, the legitimacy of war, just war, holy war, peace, justice, Christian love.
Paul Marshall, Hudson Institutes
CALVIN, SOCIETY, AND SOCIAL CHANGE
ABSTRACT: For Calvin, the whole creation is equally under God's sovereign will and the institutions of society are not arranged hierarchially but are differentiated according to vocation. Because of this differentiation, God's calling is not mediated exclusively through one of them, so none can claim sovereignity over the others. They are to be arranged side by side in mutual support of one another, and God's work is carried out by the free, voluntary obedience by God's people. This led in turn to a stress on moving politics from being simply an elite occupation to one that is participatory--the response of human beings who freely submit themselves to God and thus seek to transform the social, economic and political to reflect God's order. It also led to a covenantal views of politics that helped create modern federalism. KEYWORDS: Althusius, associations, Calvin, federalism, freedom, popular participation, vocation, subsidiarity.
David Tong, International Reformed Evangelical Seminary
(Sekolah Tinggi Teologi Reformed Injili Internasional) Jakarta, Indonesia
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHRISTIANITY AND SCIENCE:
A BRIEF HISTORICAL STUDY ON DARWINISM AND THE OLD PRINCETON THEOLOGIANS
ABSTRACT: Richard Dawkins openly declares that he is strongly against religion since religion destroys scientific works. This assumption is not something new. Since the end of the 19 th century there was a development of a thesis that claims Christinity and science are two antagonistic poles. Although this thesis is now inadequate, many Christians are still holding on to this view. In reality, the development of Darwinism in the United States is also supported by Christians scientist. When we study Old Princeton theologians we find that they have different attitude about science. When they face pressures on the development of science (in this case evolution), they actually are not reticent in accepting the fact of evolution although they reject mechanistic and naturalistic interpretation of Darwinism upon those facts. Old Princeton theologians give examples on how a Christian should take a stand on science. Evangelicals in Indonesia can learn a lot form their history and tradition. KEYWORDS: Charles Hodge, Archibald Alexander Hodge, Benjamin Breckinridge Warfield, John Gresham Machen, Old Princeton, evolution,, theistic evolution, Darwinism.
Binsar A. Hutabarat: Reformed Center for Religion and Society (RCRS)
ISU AGAMA DALAM SISDIKNAS N0 20 TAHUN 2003: MENINJAU KEMBALI JALAN DEMOKRASI PENDIDIKAN NASIONAL
ABSTRACT: This article discusses religious issues and its implementation in the enactment of the National Education System Law (Undang-Undang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional or Sisdiknas Law) No. 20 of 2003. The presence of the Sisdiknas 2003 can not be separated from the power struggles that occur at the time. The ideological debate among the Indonesian elite had not ended and caused the crisis management education in Indonesia. As a result, the mobilization of educational resources to achieve the educational goals met some obstacles; one of them is a on private education, especially those established by religious institutions. Political education in Indonesia is still dominated by the interests of the group. Consequently the national education law has not appreciated the diversity of Indonesia, and has not become the property of all individuals and groups. KEYWORDS: national education system (sisdiknas), religious education, democracy education.
Martin Lukito Sinaga: Sekolah Tinggi Teologi Jakarta
UMAT KRISTIANI DAN POLITIK DI INDONESIA: DARI POLITIK MINORITAS KE POLITIK PLURALISME
ABSTRACT: Theological attitude and political position of Christian in Indonesia is ambivalent, wich cause these people to be cornered as minority parasite. This situation needs to be adressed, and deeper understanding of Reformed heritage and Sam Ratulangi's struggle in the dire era of Indonesian birth in 1945 can inspire a new mode of theology and Indonesian Christian political presence today. In this light, the strategic direction of Christian politics lies in the pluralism political movement. KEYWORDS: incognito, civil obedience, minority politics, majoririanism, politics of citizenship pluralitiy.
Togardo Siburian: Sekolah Tinggi Teologi Bandung
MANUSIA, AGAMA DAN MASYARAKAT: SUATU WACANA MENUJU DIALOG MULTI-PERADABAN GLOBAL
ABSTRACT: This article tries to foster a multi-civilization dialogue to religiuos society that faces humanity crisis due to extrimism. Study through library research found that there is an axiom that religion and society is a neccessery in human life. In reality these two dimensions is closely related and may resulted in sharp conflicts between culture and civilization. Inter-religious studies, including inter-religion dialogue, are developed to overcome these conflicts. Unfortunately, the differences in comparative religions study are widened, although in the hazy form such as multi-culturalism ideas wich contain interreligious aspect. The ideas of multi-culturalism in the intra and inter-religion dialogue become an important principle, since it looks upon One God as a source of religious existence in human. It is neccessery to exceep the multi-religion principe wich deals with others factors such as race, culture, social, politics, economy, technology, and education of modern person. An innovative concept is needed that combines all existing elements in globa multi-civilization dialogue, by considering global factors such as human rights, democracy, civil society, and world ethics. This universal multi-civilization concept can be declared as discourse to overcome crises today comprehensively. KEYWORDS: human, society, inter-religion, global, civilization, dialogue, multi-civilization, present.
Sri Suwartiningsih dan David Samiyono, Universitas Kristen Satyawacana, Salatiga
KEARIFAN LOKAL MASYARAKAT NIAS DALAM MEMPERTAHANKAN HARMONI SOSIAL
ABSTRACT: Being a pluralist community, Nias consists of not only the Nias ethnic group but also other ethnic groups, such as Tionghoa (Chinese), Padang, Batak and Javanese. Social harmony within the community is like no other ever found in other regions across Indonesia. Indeed, social harmony amongst the Nias community has been a very much interesting social fact for research and analysis. Has some sort of local wisdom been exercised as a social capital to create the social harmony within the life of this religious-pluralist community? A research on this was conducted in Kota Gunungsitoli by applying the descriptive-qualitative research. The research shows that their local wisdom of Banua dan fatalifusöta, Emali dome si so ba lala, ono luo na so yomo, Sebua ta’ide’ide’ö, side’ide’ide mutayaigöand the fact that religious communites in this region have strong understanding and emphasize on their religious values are matters that heavily influence both the creation and the preservation of the social harmony within the community. KEYWORDS: social-harmony, religious pluralism, cultural diversity, Nias, banua dan fatalifusöta.